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Sankey Diagrams

Page history last edited by Joel Rosenberg 3 months, 3 weeks ago



Smil: https://vaclavsmil.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/smil-energyconversion2021-1.pdf



1976 LBNL doc: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/3dz5d805

     and https://archive.org/details/explaining-energy 



Here's a hacked together interactive Sankey that I did with Protovis: http://bl.ocks.org/728723

Data is in JSON format.



The successor to Protovis -- d3 -- has a Sankey layout: http://bost.ocks.org/mike/sankey/

d3 also takes care of transitions: http://bl.ocks.org/mbostock/1256572



Some of my notes on Sankeys:

Spaghetti 1: http://www.energyliteracy.com/?p=293

Spaghetti 2: http://www.energyliteracy.com/?p=310


The QTR is basically an analysis of the energy flow diagram for the US -- a kind of overlay that is given iconic status, as shown here in their cover image and "legend":




USA Energy Flow Chart, with archives (2010 and 2011 don't reference data):




Slightly interactive version at National Academies:



This might be my favorite version, from Energy88, with both imports and the subcategories broken down as stacked bar charts. It even shows that the "useful" energy winds up as "waste". Energy88-Sankey.pdf


Here's the Energy Display System, that was created by CSIS in the 70s. The "cross-plots" are themselves interesting graphs.  


CSIS even got an episode of The Flintstones produced to help spread the word -- narrated by Charlton Heston!





The original diagram by Captain Sankey was for steam engine efficiency!


It's from this book, but Plate V is missing from the back of the Google book:


Somebody remade it: http://forum.e-sankey.com/index.php?topic=259.0


Thesis (in German) on Sankey: http://umwelt.hs-pforzheim.de/fileadmin/dokumente/2006/Nr_124-Der_Einsatz_von_Sankey-Diagrammen_im_Stoffstrommanagement.pdf


Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthew_Henry_Phineas_Riall_Sankey


Sankey's books:

“The Maps of the Ordnance Survey” (1888)

“The Thermal Efficiency of Steam Engines” (1895)

“Governing of Steam Engines by Throttling and by Variable Expansion” (1895)

“Interim Report of the Committee on tabulating the Results of Steam-Engine and Boiler Trials” (1902)

“The Energy Chart. Practical Applications to Reciprocal Steam-Engines” (1905)


Sankey's obit: http://www.icevirtuallibrary.com/content/article/10.1680/imotp.1926.14022



Teaching Sankeys


The Household Energy Game, 1974, had people estimate their energy use through a series of questions, then fill in a grid representing 100% of an average American's energy use to see how they compare.

HouseholdEnergyGame.pdf and background info HouseholdEnergyGame-Annotated.pdf


Here's a 2009 version, roughly colorized based on possible fuel source -- oil (green), natural gas (blue), and electricity (yellow):


Other energy education materials from the 70s tried to demonstrate the equivalence of energy units:



In the UK, they have students map cut-out squares to Sankeys:



This can be done for multiple items:


"Energy Flow Diagrams for Teaching Physics Concepts"

The Physics Teacher Vol. 42, Feb 2004, pp. 113-117.


Typical power flow in an unaccelerated car at highway speed.  For a typical acceleration, these flows are multiplied by five:





From "A Bridge to the Renewable Energy Future" by Robert U. Ayres and Ed Ayres


"Efficiency is a slippery concept. On the surface it is a simple ratio between an output and an input. That is perfectly satisfactory as long as the inputs and outputs are measuring the same thing in the same way. In the case of energy, however, it is tricky because, as explained by the First Law of Thermodynamics, "energy" is actually conserved. That means that the energy exiting from any process or transformation is always equal to the energy going into the process. There is no gain or loss, so the efficiency must be 100 percent by definition. So, the first problem with the Bridges document (and almost all public discussions of energy) is that these discussions are not really about energy, but about the useful component, which they do not define. However there is a technical definition of useful energy, which is energy that can do useful work. The technical term is exergy."




R.  H.  Socolow 

AIP Conf. Proc. -- November 25, 1985 -- Volume 135, pp. 15-32

FREE DOWNLOAD: http://link.aip.org/link/?APCPCS/135/15/1

"The  problem  is  in  the  spaghetti!  Many  an unsuspecting  banker  or congressman,  seeking  to gauge  the  relative promise of alternative  ventures  in energy  conservation,  was  led  to conclude  that  73 percent  efficient  water heating  and  space  heating could  scarcely  be improved,  while  33 percent  efficient  electricity production  had  to  be ripe  for  a major  breakthrough.  The  ubiquitous spaghetti  diagrams  pointed  the  investor  and  legislator  away  from the distinction  between  heat  and  work,  by means  of which  it would  have been  possible  to  comprehend  a  heat pump  four  or more  times  more effective  at using  fuel  or  electricity  to  heat  air  or water.

"The  APS  Study  reminded  its  audience  that  thermodynamics  led naturally  to the concept  of "available  work"  and, thence,  to a "Second  Law  Efficiency"  by means  of which  all  tasks  (including,  in particular,  space  and  water heating and  electricity  generation) could  be  evaluated,  without  distorting  comparisons  across  tasks. 'We  strongly recommend,"  the  Report  said  (p.  5),  "that  this formulation,  or  a  similar  one,  be widely  adopted  by the scientific and  technical  community  as a  standard  from which all  tasks  should  be measured,  and  against  which  all devices  should  be evaluated.""



"Primary- and Secondary-Level Energy Education in the UK"

M. Newborough, P. Getvoldsen, D. Probert & P. Page 

Applied Energy 40 (1991) 119-156  


"Ogborn and Ross believe that there is a need to find a new term for the everyday meaning of energy. Many secondary pupils comprehend 'energy' as the 'fuel'--the scientific concept corresponding with this being that of 'available energy' or exergy--and so they instinctively believe that energy 'gets used up'. That is, pupils appreciate exergy, not energy. The possibility of change is represented by exergy; energy is what takes part in the change. Ogborn describes free energy as the 'go' of all things. Ross rightly points out that employment of the term 'free energy' should be avoided because it is not free. Instead he recommends using 'fuel value' or 'available energy'. The present authors would prefer the latter term or exergy. Wall suggests the concept of energy would appear less daunting if the following definitions were adopted: (i) energy is motion or the ability to produce motion; (ii) exergy is work or the ability to produce work."



"Exergy as a Tool for Sustainability" MARC A. ROSEN 

3rd IASME/WSEAS Int. Conf. on  Energy & Environment, University of Cambridge, UK, February 23-25, 2008 


Power (left) and Exergy (right):


National exergy diagrams from Sweden:

"Exergy -- A Useful Concept" Göran Wall, 1986


The Swedish energy and material conversion in 1920 (670 PJ.) and 1975 (2 500 PJ/yr.), in terms of exergy. 



Wes Hermann's Exergy at GCEP Stanford:







An interesting but not widely accepted idea is to treat energy and entropy as fluid-like quantities, where energy is conserved and entropy is half-conserved -- it can be produced but not destroyed. Then a measure of "efficiency" is in terms of how much entropy is produced. Below are some Sankey diagrams from a science education paper that explore this idea. Here the entropy is added on, unlike the exergy which is "used up."


"Renewable energy sources in terms of entropy"

Jan-Peter Meyn 2011 Eur. J. Phys. 32 185



Straight flow from hot to cold reservoir (entropy produced)

With a reversible heat engine in the middle (note no entropy produced):


A hydroelectric power plant (including the water cycle):



CO2 Sankey:



More Energy Sankey examples:

nice sunlight/energy used: http://sunenergyfacts.com/2008/01/solar-energy-fact-1/

nice in-home split (though for swimming pool): http://www.energy-transparency.com/images/sankeys/Sankey%20minimal.jpg

just search Google for "energy sankey" or "engine sankey"



Other notes on MAKING SANKEYS


OmniGraffle? http://www.omnigroup.com/mailman/archive/omnigraffle-users/2009/004989.html

Example: http://aspoireland.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/global-energy-conversion-to-economic-services1.png

Processing: http://sjbrenner.com/2010/sankey-diagram-generator-code/



Not a Sankey, but has sliders (prolly too many): http://my2050.decc.gov.uk/



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